Universal motor and series wound motor
A universal motor is a design that can operate on either AC or DC power. In universal motors the stator and rotor of a brushed DC motor are both wound and supplied from an external source, with the torque being a function of the rotor current times the stator current so reversing the current in both rotor and stator does not reverse the rotation. Universal motors can run on AC as well as DC provided the frequency is not so high that the inductive reactance of the stator winding and eddy current losses become problems. Nearly all universal motors are series-wound because their stators have relatively few turns, minimizing inductance. Universal motors are compact, have high starting torque and can be varied in speed over a wide range with relatively simple controls such as rheostats and PWM choppers. Compared with induction motors, universal motors do have some drawbacks inherent to their brushes and commutators: relatively high levels of electrical and acoustic noise, low reliability and more frequent required maintenance.
Universal motors are widely used in small home appliances and hand power tools. Until the 1970s they dominated electric traction (electric, including diesel-electric railway and road vehicles); many traction power networks still use special low frequencies such as 16.7 and 25 Hz to overcome the aforementioned problems with losses and reactance. Still widely used, universal traction motors have been increasingly displaced by polyphase AC induction and permanent magnet motors with variable-frequency drives made possible by modern power semiconductor devices.
Repulsion motors are wound-rotor single-phase AC motors that are a type of induction motor. In a repulsion motor, the armature brushes are shorted together rather than connected in series with the field, as is done with universal motors. By transformer action, the stator induces currents in the rotor, which create torque by repulsion instead of attraction as in other motors. Several types of repulsion motors have been manufactured, but the repulsion-start induction-run (RS-IR) motor has been used most frequently.
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